 # What Is The 421 Rule?

## What are maintenance IV fluids?

Maintenance IV fluids are appropriate for euvolemic medical and surgical patients who cannot take adequate enteral fluids.

“Maintenance” = volume of fluid required to meet daily metabolic needs, such as normal water and electrolyte losses, and maintain homeostasis..

## How do you calculate ideal body weight?

Ideal body weight is computed in men as 50 + (0.91 × [height in centimeters − 152.4]) and in women as 45.5 + (0.91 × [height in centimeters − 152.4]). A simple alternative would be to compute ideal body weight as the weight corresponding to an ideal body mass index of 22 kg/m2.

## How do you calculate percentage of dehydration?

This is calculated by dividing the difference between the pre-illness and illness weights by the pre-illness weight, then multiplying by 100 (Table 5). For example, a 10-kg patient who has lost 1 kg is 10% dehydrated. Every 1 kg of weight lost is equivalent to 1 L of fluid loss.

## How do you calculate maintenance fluids?

The 24-hour number is often divided into approximate hourly rates for convenience, leading to the “4-2-1” formula.100 ml/kg/24-hours = 4 ml/kg/hr for the 1st 10 kg.50 ml/kg/24-hours = 2 ml/kg/hr for the 2nd 10 kg.20 ml/kg/24-hours = 1 ml/kg/hr for the remainder.

## How do you calculate pediatric fluids?

For infants 3.5 to 10 kg the daily fluid requirement is 100 mL/kg.For children 11-20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1000 mL + 50 mL/kg for every kg over 10.For children >20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1500 mL + 20 mL/kg for every kg over 20, up to a maximum of 2400 mL daily.More items…

## What is Holliday Segar formula?

The Holliday/Segar formula of 100 ml/kg body weight (BW) for the first 10 kg; 1,000 ml plus 50 ml/kg BW for each kilogram between 11 kg and 20 kg, and 1,500 ml plus 20 ml/kg BW for each kilogram above 20 kg, or another commonly used formula of 1,600 ml/m2 body surface area per day, is used throughout the world.

## How much IV fluid is given for dehydration?

Initial management includes placement of an intravenous or intraosseous line and rapid administration of 20 mL/kg of an isotonic crystalloid (eg, lactated Ringer solution, 0.9% sodium chloride). Additional fluid boluses may be required depending on the severity of the dehydration.

## What is Young’s rule formula?

[Age / (Age + 12)] x Recommended Adult Dose = Pediatric Dose Young’s Rule can be applied to quickly approach a situation in which the patient’s weight is unknown.

## What happens if dehydration is left untreated?

If left untreated, severe dehydration can be serious and cause fits (seizures), brain damage and death.